ref below;stout is a class of porter, it came about due to the introduction of other grains than barley being used in addition, due to a tax on malted barley.It has become associated with Ireland laterly due to its popularity there, although it was originaly a London style. Porter as a name came about because of the popularity of the beer with the dock porters.Stout because the other grains introduced gave the beer a fuller or stouter texture rather than flavour.The guiness conection at best relates to their being and early importer/exporter and modern marketing!
The is below is correct,if a little oxford. Basicly yeast is added to the "container" so that the beer continues to be live ie improve with age. Two basic types; cask and bottle conditioned.Cask will see a hand pull/pump used for dispence rather than a font,bottle condioned will need careful lable reading to identify if you dont know the brand.although there is now a "CAMRA says this real ale" labling scheme starting to appear,to help the uninitiated.
Ref below, not sure what hunter gathering has to do with this but otherwise fairy accurate, though forgetting the main uk types of bitter,best bitter and the now saddly not so common though slowly reappearing, thankfuly, mild, the newer versions of which are often called dark to avoid conotations with flat caps.Try one you will be surprised!Good lagers are availabe also but they do not come from the major international keg factorys!